Technology Comparison

Multiphase Cooling

 

Multiphase cooling is an upcoming technology still undergoing immense research and development efforts across the globe and is poised to eventually replace most air and liquid cooling applications. Water and pumped- liquid- loops suffer several severe drawbacks which make them unsuitable for most high reliability and mission critical applications. The addition of a second mechanical device (the pump) in liquid cooling devices further reduces overall system reliability over air cooling, which requires only a single mechanical part (the fan).

Multiphase cooling is the only cooling system that takes advantage of  a phase change (from liquid to vapor) thus harnessing the raw power of latent heat of vaporization.

 

Multiphase cooling improves on existing technologies by:

  • Increasing Thermal Performance
  • Improving Ergonomics – Smaller, lighter and quieter
  • Vastly improved Reliability
  • Improved Energy Efficiency of the Cooling System and Electronics Component

The thermal energy/dissipation figure in the multiphase technology can no longer be defined through the specific heat, as all energy is absorbed when the refrigerant changes its state from liquid to vapor (uptaking heat inside the evaporator), or absorbing heat by phase change from vapor to liquid (rejecting heat inside the condenser). It does not change the temperature of the substance.

The heat of vaporization for 1 Kilogram of Water equals 2,257 Kilojoules per Kilogram. That is simply the energy required to completely vaporize (boil) the 1 Kilogram or Liter of Water (H2O).

Effectively, even with the temperature rise of 1 degree that air and liquid cooling had to their advantage – Multiphase cooling is still 2000x more efficient than air cooling and 500x more efficient than liquid cooling.

 

Water Cooling

Liquid cooling followed soon after convection air cooling and provided a vast performance increase in absorbing and especially moving heat over long distances. This is in large part due to the greatly increased mass and improved thermal conductivity that most liquids and especially water offer over air cooling. However, at the same time water and pumped- liquid- loops suffer several severe drawbacks which make them unsuitable for most high reliability and mission critical applications. Furthermore, the  addition of a second mechanical device (the pump) further reduces overall system reliability over air cooling, which requires only a single mechanical part (the fan).

Water cooling is capable of up- taking 4.183 Kilojoules per Kilogram per degree Kelvin.

Air Cooling

 

Air cooling presents the oldest technology and occurs either naturally through convection or via forced air utilizing a fan to increase heat dissipation. Very low mass and low thermal conductivity mean that these applications are only suitable up until a certain heat flux (heat density) has been reached. Even in those applications – with increasing cooling requirements size of the heat exchangers make designs prohibitively large and require vast amounts of air to be moved via fans.

Air cooling is only capable of up- taking 1.005 Kilojoules per Kilogram per degree Kelvin.

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About Captherm Systems

CapTherm Systems Inc – Progressive Thermal Management is a thermal management/ cooling company that specializes in PC, Server, LED, Electric vehicle cooling. We are a high-tech R&D company.

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